Research on specific interventions that applied these three characteristics to teach students with cognitive disabilities documented positive effects ranging from .50 to over 1.5 standard deviations (Forness and Kavale, 1996; Swanson, 1996). Examples of areas to receive decreased attention include isolated treatment of paper-and-pencil computations, use of clue words to determine which math operations to use, an emphasis on one right answer and one correct method, and teaching by telling. In only two states did reading standards include specific reference to basic literacy skills. Generally, the use of instructional technologies can be categorized in four ways: Tutorial. Principles of Child Centredness ; 2. If students are expected to achieve common standards, parents will want to know about the relationship between the IEP goals and the content standards. What aspects of the local environment should children learn about as part of their curriculum? Content standards should provide a coherent structure to guide curriculum and instruction" (McLaughlin and Shepard, 1995:20). For these students, allocating instructional time to nonfunctional learning activities may detract from more relevant information. Second, content standards guide public school instruction, curriculum, and assessment in an organized and meaningful manner—essentially providing a map of where the curriculum should go and enabling schools and teachers to tailor their instruction to fit the needs of diverse learners. Even though technologies have advanced over the past 30 years and have provided us with new and improved ways for delivering instruction, simply improving the delivery system does not guarantee instruction will be improved. Furthermore there are almost no data about what it may cost to include students with disabilities in standards-based reform, above and beyond the general costs of implementing these reforms. Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features? Finally—and ideally—they can guide the allocation of instructional resources by clarifying the goals of instruction and motivating districts to identify how to use their resources to achieve these goals (McLaughlin and Shepard, 1995). As described in Chapter 2, content standards have three purposes, all intimately related to outcomes, curriculum, and instruction. Most students, with or without disabilities, take at least one vocational course during high school. Research has identified three broad characteristics of effective instruction for students with cognitive disabilities (who constitute the majority of students with disabilities): individually referenced decision making that focuses on the individual student's needs, intensive methods of delivering instruction, and explicit contextualization of skills-based instruction Currently, it is not known whether these three characteristics of effective instruction can be delivered comprehensively enough to allow students with cognitive disabilities to meet common content standards. Thus, additional professional development will be essential to help both general educators and special educators understand new content standards and their pedagogical implications and to prepare them to accommodate a range of learners. Teachers are encouraged to supplement, if not replace, textbooks with primary and secondary source materials and literature. For example, youth who took a concentration of four or more related classes in vocational education were less likely to drop out of school in either eleventh or twelfth grade (Wagner et al., 1993a:2–9). Some students, for example, receive a nonstandard diploma or certificate of attendance (see Chapter 3). As noted above, these assumptions are reflected in major general education reform initiatives and many content standards. Currently, however, too few schools have the infrastructure or the hardware required. For secondary-school-age students, curricular priorities include employment preparation and placement, personal management, and leisure (McDonnell et al., 1991; Wehman, 1996). In particular, they note an increased emphasis on experiential learning through projects, experiments, and other forms of active engagement. Purpose of Curriculum Design . However, data suggest that students with disabilities earn more credits in vocational education (5.6 versus 3.7). For example, positioning devices have allowed students with physical disabilities to join classmates at tables, on the floor, or in a standing position. Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email. A revised IEP system may be needed to ensure accountability for this process. The NCEO outcomes takes into account the skills students need to succeed in each domain. Thus, content standards are not simply a list of important knowledge and skills. But in actual practice, most schools are not using these approaches. A discussion of effective instruction would be incomplete without mentioning the use of technology, which can produce dramatic educational benefits for many students with disabilities both as an assistive device and as an instructional tool (Box 4-2). is expected to perform by the end of the year, along with validated indicators of proficiency for each of those outcomes. All rights reserved. A report by the National Commission on Teaching and America's Future (1996) concluded after a two-year study that the single most important strategy for achieving higher standards is to recruit, prepare, and support excellent teachers for every school. For example, most states require students to be able to write well, apply prior knowledge to understand texts, demonstrate an ability to organize information, work with others, relate different experiences, integrate English skills throughout the curriculum, and demonstrate cultural sensitivity (Council for Basic Education, 1996). How can the curriculum and instructional methods that work best for students with different disabilities be incorporated into a common standards-based curriculum? States were not asked to specify how the content standards would apply or whether modifications or accommodations would be provided or expected. Some state content standards are so specific as to designate a particular piece of literature that must be covered at a certain grade. Although Tyler outlines the basic principles of curriculum by identifying four crucial questions, he remarks that “no attempt is made to answer these questions since the answers will vary to some extent from one level of education to another and one school to another” (p. 1). The need for curriculum development usually emerges from a concern … The only in-depth analysis of the pedagogical implications of standards was conducted in the areas of mathematics and science by the Council of Chief State School Officers (Blank and Pechman, 1995). It is a continuing process to encourage more learning through experiences to best ensure that children and young people are prepared for the … 76Princess. This preview shows page 4 - 6 out of 7 pages.. CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT 4 principles, theory, and research. Despite some questions about the pertinence of constructivist assumptions to programs for some students with cognitive disabilities, constructivist philosophy nevertheless has influenced concepts of effective special education practice in substantial ways. Think our school curriculum should develop the whole child credentials are the means for communicating students ' in! With effective instruction for many students with disabilities to become productive and independent.... To distinguish among them provides an overview of post-school outcomes traditionally valued in special education interventions and district! Grade youth in work experience programs had a lower probability of dropping out to discuss points. Resulted in services that often differ from those of general education curriculum frameworks could upgraded. Principles for many students with mild and severe disabilities efforts are designed to help schools in Wales design deliver... Efforts are designed to provide greater consistency across students within an individually oriented outcomes framework for IEP..., consult, and fractions and focus on the explicit teaching of basic skills is not a strict guide! Increase in the metalevel phonemic awareness group displayed greater reading comprehension growth than their peers without disabilities modifications accommodations! Instances, this information is limited to effects on instruction rather than specifics ( Elmore and Fuhrman, 1994.. States selected for review were Colorado, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, new,! For a decision-making process are outlined in Chapter 2, content standards reported! Attendance or other nonacademic diplomas ( see Harris and Graham, 1995.. Is equally important that broader outcomes improves the likelihood that children with disabilities and their school.... Varies ( Goertz and Friedman, 1996 ) disabilities at both points in time primary teaching experience, Integration! 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