Identify by number the question you are answering. Self-consciousness is a special privilege of the human mind. (ii) Psychology is the Science of Consciousness: In 1884 James Sully defined psychology as the science of the ‘inner world’ as distinguished from physical science which study the physical phenomena. Every individual has certain peculiarities which are not shared by others. About 9/10th part of behaviour is determined by unconscious and preconscious mind whereas only 1/10th part is determined by conscious mind. We may trace mental development in man from the child to the adult as it proceeds; and we may similarly trace mental development in the animal world. Two figures who helped to found psychology as a formal discipline and science in the 19th century were Wilhelm Wundt in Germany and William James in the United States. Consciousness means being awake, alert and responsive to the environment. Clinical methods may be classified into two types, viz., the psycho-analytical methods and the modern diagnostic methods. The growth and development of mental processes are traced through different stages to their origin. These deal with the phenomena of life. Mild anger, fear and other emotions tend to disappear when they are attended to. The results are changes in the dependent variable, which are pro­duced by changes in the independent variable. Introspection suffered from one major problem: there was no way to resolve differences of opinion. Thus explanation generally takes the form of generalisation. For example, the delinquence of a problem child is investigated by this method. He should adopt a principle of caution. A human brain weighs about 1500 grams. Yoga certainly provides us improved well-being for body and mind, which is very significant, but goes beyond that as well. Intro­spection requires that the same-mind be the observer and the observed. He knows exactly where and when to look. Hence it is better to define psychology as the science of mental processes. Thirdly, psychology deals also with behaviour, physiological processes, and external stimuli which are related to consciousness. It should be specified as a behaviour science. It can study a mental process under a variety of conditions. By Frank Amthor . Conceptual development is of the nature of organic growth or unfoldment from within. Psychology is a behaviour science, and deals with experience and behaviour of individuals. The fall of bodies is explained by the law of gravita­tion of the earth. Fourthly, the environment acts upon the individual through the sense-organs or receptors, and the individual reacts to the environ­ment through muscles or effectors. It aims at a systematic and self-consistent body of knowledge relating to mental processes. Physical sciences study the nature of physical systems. Fourthly, introspection implies a cleavage in the observing mind, for the same mind is the observer and the observed. He is well ‘set’ or prepared for accurate observation. It also makes use of experiments with the help of instruments. This is impossible from the nature of the case. Psychology Defined William James Psychology is the description and explanation . Responses include (1) external behaviour, e.g., movements of a rat along the pathway of a maze, (2) physiological processes, e.g., increased heartbeat, etc., and (3) speech, e.g.,’ verbal expressions of the subject’s exper­ience, e.g., descriptions of sensations, thoughts, feelings, etc. Only he will have to analyse his complex experience into its constituent aspects and re-compound them in such a way as to explain the behaviour of others correctly. Psychology as the Science of Consciousness. William James defined psychology as “the science of mental life. Content Guidelines 2. Disclaimer Copyright, Psychology Discussion - Discuss Anything About Psychology, Notes on Educational Psychology: Nature, Scope and Methods, Psychology: Essay on Psychology | College Essays, Educational Psychology: Meaning, Scope and Methods, Leadership Theories: Top 11 Theories of Leadership, Theories of Motivation in Management: Top 7 Theories, Notes on Attitude: Introduction, Formation, Changes and Measurement | Psychology, Notes on Socialization: Introduction, Culture, Structure, Status and Conflict | Psychology, Difference between Modern Family and Traditional Family | Psychology. There are some difficulties of the introspective method. Ludwig von Mises, therefore, doubts the existence of the so called ‘statistical loves’. Some mental processes occur only under normal conditions of mental life. But intelligence does not depend upon the mere size or weight of the brain. But it can give us knowledge of our own mental processes alone. If we are always on our guard, we may attend to even the fleeting mental processes as they occur. Introspection requires a power of abstraction which can be acquired by habit. Despite millennia of analyses, definitions, explanations and debates by philosophers and scientists, consciousness remains puzzling and controversial, being "at once the most familiar and most mysterious aspect of our lives." That is the foundation of the practice of Yoga. According to J. But they can experience similar mental processes. Introspection gives us knowledge of our mental processes. It includes all types of activities such as cognitive, affective and conative. (Psyche—soul; logos =science). But psychology deals with the mental processes of all minds, human and animal, normal and abnormal. Consciousness, many have argued, is what separates humans from other animals. These methods were developed out of clinical practice. Secondly, it deals with experience like perceiving, remembering, imagining, thinking, feeling, emotion, volition, and the like, and behaviour like reflex action, instinctive action, voluntary action, and habitual action. Psychology is the science of mental processes and telic beha­viour. We do not believe in the doctrine of Behaviourism. TOS4. Therefore, introspection should be supplemented by observation and experiment. This theory was challenged in the 20th century. Psychology Definition of CONSCIOUSNESS: noun. If many expert psychologists investigate their own similar fleeting mental processes, they may record their experiences and compare notes with one another. My friend is angry with somebody. In experimental sciences, observation is supplemented by experiment. According to Woodworth, “Any manifestation of life is is activity” and behaviour is a collective name of all such activities. Wilhelm Wundt (1892 It is the science of experience and behaviour, which tells us how the mind works and behaves. Experimental method is employed in psychological science for testing behaviour. It was called rational psychology. Psychology deals with all types of behaviour—human beha­viour and animal behaviour. (b) Psychology is a Natural of Positive Science: (ii) Psychology is the Science of Consciousness: (iii) Psychology is the Science of Behaviour: (iv) Psychology is the Science of the Experience and Behaviour of the Individual in Relation to his Environment: (v) Psychology is the Science of Experience and Behaviour. Psychology is a positive science. Secondly, bias and prejudice vitiate our observation of other minds, and affect our interpretation of others’ behaviour. Furthermore, the difficulty can be overcome by the collaboration of experts. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Psychology. Experiment has many advantages over observation. This requires a certain amount of vigilance. It is the business of a science systematically to describe and explain the phenomena with which it is engaged. The weight of the elephant’s brain is 1/500 of its body weight. First, psychology is a positive science, and should be mentioned definitely. As long as we are trapped in our usual self-centered thoughts and emotions, we cannot end the problems in the world. Be consistent with one variable at a time while the other variables are kept.. To my inner perception or introspection understand its implications rightly are explained by the of... Experiment we eliminate irrelevant circum­stances and isolate relevant ones eyes and act on the part of,! Introspection like houses, trees, pens or pencils conscious ; and sometimes I know that feel! Act of introspection can be overcome by the optic nerves to the mental substance, or mind, delinquence! 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